Ambassador Robert Joseph is Senior Scholar at the National Institute for Public Policy. Prior to July 2007, Ambassador Joseph served as U.S. Special Envoy for Nuclear Nonproliferation. From May 2005 until March 2007, he was Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security. In this capacity, he reported directly to the Secretary of State as the principal State Department officer for non-and counterproliferation matters, arms control, arms transfers, regional security and defense relations, and security assistance. His management responsibilities included oversight of three major bureaus headed by Assistant Secretaries of State: International Security and Nonproliferation; Political and Military Affairs; and Verification, Compliance and Implementation. Previously, from January 2001 through November 2004, Dr. Joseph served in the National Security Council as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Proliferation Strategy, Counterproliferation and Homeland Defense. He was responsible, under the supervision of the National Security Advisor, for developing and coordinating U.S. policies and strategies for preventing, deterring and defending against threats to the United States from weapons of mass destruction. From 1992 until 2001, Dr. Joseph was Professor of National Security Studies and Director/Founder of the Center for Counterproliferation Research at the National Defense University. Earlier, he was U.S. Commissioner to the Standing Consultative Commission and Ambassador to the U.S.-Russian Commission on Nuclear Testing, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Forces and Arms Control Policy, Nuclear Policy/Planning Officer at U.S. Mission to NATO, and Assistant Professor of International Relations/Strategic Studies at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tulane University, and Carleton College.Dr. Joseph received his BA from Saint Louis University; his MA from the University of Chicago; and his PhD from Columbia University. His awards include the National Defense University President's Award for Individual Achievement and the National Nuclear Security Administration Gold Medal for Distinguished Service. He also received the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Civilian Service (and Bronze Palm), multiple Senior Executive Service Meritorious Achievements citations, and was the recipient of the annual Ronald Reagan award for his contributions to U.S. missile defense. Dr. Joseph received the National Defense University President's Award for Individual Achievement (2004), the National Nuclear Security Administration Gold Medal for Distinguished Service. Additionally, he has received the Department of Defense Distinguished Civilian Service Award and multiple citations for Senior Executive Service Meritorious Achievement.